Evolution – Defined by pre-eminent evolutionist Ernst Mayr

Darwin’s Five Major Theories of Evolution

Mayr recognized that Darwin’s theory really consisted of five components. Summarized from his book “What Evolution Is” (2001), they are as follows:

1. The non-constancy of species (The basic theory of evolution)

Today this is commonly referred to as change over time.

2. The descent of all organisms from common ancestors (branching evolution)

Also known as “common descent”. It refers to the fact that evolutionist believe that all living things, from fish to fungi, to fruit, to bacteria, to birds, to humans, to trees and any other thing you can think of regardless how different – all of them arose from a single ancestor. Put another way, evolutionists truly believe we are all distant cousins to worms, roaches and snakes.

3. The gradualness of evolution (no saltations, no discontinuities)

A saltation is a jump or other discontinuity in a line of descent. Darwinian evolution says such things do not happen. This is in contrast to the theory of punctuated equilibrium as proposed by Eldridge and Gould, who believe evolutionary changes can occur in bursts of activity or jumps.

4. The multiplication of species (the origin of diversity)

This is the observation that the number of species increases over time.

5. Natural selection

“What Darwin called natural selection is actually a process of elimination” Mayr acknowledges.  Natural selection removes information. As opposed to selection by an intelligent breeder making selective choices to develop or remove characteristics he or she is interested in, natural selection happens without intelligence, by natural processes. (This is the illustration Darwin used.) The process is a two-step one – first there is variation. In today’s understanding such change is typically brought about by a chance mutation (This is a modern understanding. Darwin did not know about genetics or mutations. The theory that includes mutations is thus referred to as “Neo-Darwinism.” (“Neo” means new)). This step is such an important one, that some evolutionist break it out as a separate step. Once there is variation, then there is a change which may be beneficial or not. This is where survival of the fittest comes in: those variations which better position a creature to survive will do so, while those less beneficial or detrimental to the creature will cause it to perish. In theory, over multiple generations, this will result in evolution that can change and multiply species.

Ernst Mayr book jacket description
Ernst Mayr, mini-bio on the book jacket of “What Evolution Is”

To see Paul Nelson’s definition of Neo-Evolution, see here.

Lucy – upright hominid or ape?

Lucy – Australopithecus Afarensis  (southern ape from the Afar region) – is billed in science books and museums as in this display in Chicago’s Field Museum – as an upright, walking hominid. Secularists claim Lucy is an early departure from apes and has started down the path toward becoming human. As such, she is often depicted with human features: Eye whites (apes have brown eyes), human facial expressions (apes are incapable of such expressions), sometimes with very little hair, but always walking upright as in the sample from the Field Museum below.

Lucy - Field Museum specimen
Lucy – walking upright as typically depicted, here from the Chicago Field Museum exhibit.

But did Lucy actually walk upright? There is much evidence to suggest she didn’t. From the angle her neck entered her skull, to locking joints on her hands to allow knuckle walking (locks humans don’t have), a more accurate depiction of the way Lucy walked is found in the Answers in Genesis depiction at their Creation Museum:

Lucy - AIG - Creation Museum
Lucy – on all fours – as depicted in the Creation Museum.
Lucy - Creation Museum - bone detail
Lucy with bone detail showing she was designed to walk on all fours. (Creation Museum)

For more evidence that Lucy walked on all fours and was similar to a bonobo, see this video featuring Dan Biddle from Genesis Apologetics. Of particular interest: it is now believed that Lucy died from falling 40 feet out of a tree, breaking many bones. If Lucy was so much like humans, walking up right, etc. what was she doing 40 feet up in a tree?


Dan Biddle gives details on evidence that shows Lucy walked on all fours, including the fact she fell out of a tree to her death